Day 2 :
- Track 8:Antiretroviral therapy drugs
Track 9:Retroviral gene transduction
Track 10:Retrovirus and cancer
Track 11:Reteroviral Co-Infections
Track 12:Theraputic approches of novel drugs
Location: Vancouver, Canada
Capella University School of Public Services Leadership,USA.
Pierrette J Cazeau has served in a multitude of roles in the healthcare industry. Her professional background includes traineeships as an Administrator Intern Training with Boynton Beach Rehab Nursing, a Healthcare Business Consultant.She is currently acquiring a Doctor of Philosophy degree at Capella University School of Public Services Leadership, with a specialization in Health Care Administration (Dissertation Phase V).
Background: Racism in black communities has complicated diagnosis and treatment of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Individuals most affected by HIV are also most disadvantaged in terms of race and economic status. Sixty percent of all new HIV infections take place among young black MSM between the ages 13 to 29, which explains why AIDS has been cast as a social and not bio-medical problem. Most of them will live in disbelief that they could be at risk for HIV, and so are reluctant to try new preventative treatments such as PrEP.
Methodology: This study is a literature review to explore how pre-exposure prophylaxix is related to health, behavioral, stigma, racism, and psycho behavioral. A Descriptive statistics were generated for demographics, sexual behaviors, concerns and interests about PrEP. Thirty-three participants were recruited from eastern and western counties of HIV-uninfected men who report having sex with men (MSM) through their level of agreement on statements listing concerns about the impact of PrEP use on health, behavior, stigma, and interest in psycho-behavioral support services to PrEP.Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression procedures examined a willingness to use the oral PrEP.
Results: Mean age of participants was 13-29 YMSM. Participants were enrolled in the PrEP Program compared with MSM and IDU (inject drug) of PrEP use on health, behavior, stigma, and interest in psycho-behavioral support services to PrEP. We found 5 percent has more than half reporting more than two partners. Whereas 6 percent of IDU reported inconsistent condom used; 33 percent had previously heard of PrEP, whereas 6% reported to use oral PrEP if available after being educated about its potential. In multivariable analysis controlling for age and race/ethnicity demographic significant to use oral PrEP included the following: less education [odds ratio (OR) = 7.7; P = 0.04], moderate income (OR = 13.0; P = 0.04), no perceived side effects from taking PrEP (OR = 3.5; P = 0.001), and not having to pay for PrEP (OR = 4.2; P = 0.05).
Conclusion: Black MSM who were HIV negative and who took PrEP while involving in relationship with HIV positive men remained HIV negative. Knowledge of PrEP and its implementation must overcome the same level of mistrust in the black community in order to become recognized as an important factor in reducing the AIDS virus.
University of Wyoming,USA.
Joan Smith Sonneborn, a Professor Emeritus from the Zoology and Physiology Department at the University of Wyoming, focuses on how threshold levels of stress, including exercise stress, can trigger beneficial rejuvenation and anti aging effects on the brain and body and disease intervention. Intervention in aging and related diseases have been her passion especially using animal model systems’ strategies to tap into our natural reserves to tolerate challenges and preserve or activate energy systems. Association Certified trainer. She is an avid promoter of exercise, and enjoys both strength training and step class
HIV infection shares fundamental stresses and abnormal gene function common to multiple disorders, i.e., cancer, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, neurological disorders, and ischemic shock. HIV disease then, may benefit from other treatment drugs repurposed for HIV therapy. The goal is to regulate master gene switches that promote stress tolerance. Mimetics of stress can induce stress tolerance, and likewise can serve as HIV drugs. Telomerase is a master switch in cell life or death and for mitochondrial function in innate and adaptive immune functions. However, telomerase is inhibited by HIV proteins in specific cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction directly modulates immune competence and energy availability. TERT dysfunction activates tumor suppressor p53 and the proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bax, destroys mitochondria, and induces Ipaf mRNA, a caspase 1 activator to promote HIV pathology. Studies show that activation of telomerase using (TAT2) induces antiviral activity in vitro. Likewise, genetic manipulation of telomerase in HIV-specific CD8+ T cells enhances antiviral function, increases proliferative potential and telomere length stabilization. Telomerase deficit is associated with HIV progression and telomerase upregulation in viral suppression, Given the paramount role of mitochondrial function in HIV tolerance, drugs that counteract oxidative stress, especially mitochondria targeted antioxidants, are candidate drugs both for HIV individuals without benefit of HIV standard therapy and/or as supplement to standard therapy. Nrf2 activators known to switch on antioxidant and stress resistant pathways, as well as anti-aging over the counter drugs, i.e., resveratrol, lipoic acid, and acetyl carnitine, are potental HIV therapy drugs, The alteration of sugar metabolism by mitochondrial dysfunction, implies a potential benefit of diabetic drugs repurpose for HIV infected individuals, Exercise and exercise mimetics induce master switches to tolerate stress, and thus offer HIV resistance therapy. Epigenetic drugs that alter methylation patterns have dose dependent HIV drug benefit potential
Department of Medicine,Philippines.
Background: Along with the increasing number of newly diagnosed patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) per day in the Philippines (26 new cases/day)1 is an increasing number of HIV patients diagnosed with Central Nervous System Infection (CNSI) and Stroke. A study shows that the risk of ischemic stroke was higher among those with HIV infection compared with uninfected people (hazard ratio 1.17)2. Mechanisms of ischemic stroke include HIV-associated vasculopathy, opportunistic infections or neoplasia, cardioembolism and coagulopathy3. Methods: Presented is a 35-year-old male with HIV who is non-compliant with anti-retroviral therapy and who had recent untreated Shingles was brought in with decreased sensorium, signs of meningeal irritation and right-sided neurologic deficit. This case report presents a CNS co-infection of the three most documented viruses that causes stroke: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and HIV. The inflammatory cascade in these infections promotes atherosclerosis, plaque rupture, and thrombosis, leading to ischaemic stroke4. Results: Computed Tomography scan revealed Acute to Subacute Infarct, Left Middle Cerebral Artery Territory (Figure 1). He was admitted and started empirically on Vancomycin, Ampicillin, Cefepime and Ganciclovir for Central Nervous System Infection. HIV work-up revealed a CD4 of 11 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA of 1,124,215 copies/mL. CMV IgG is positive at 65 U/mL. Lumbar tap done had an elevated opening pressure 17.4 cm with elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein of 120.9 mg/dL (NV: 15- 45), low-normal CSF glucose of 42. 0 mg/dL (NV: 40-70), and pleiocytosis of 1,880 cells/uL with lymphocytic predominance. Viral panel showed CMV viral load of 634,000 copies/mL and VZV IgG 44.4mIU/L clinching the diagnosis of concomitant CMV-VZV meningoencephalitis in this HIV patient. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Angiogram is compatible with viral vasculopathy. CMV chorioretinitis, the most common clinical manifestation of CMV end-organ disease in HIV patients, was also diagnosed based on hazy media, relative afferent pupillary defect and vitreous opacities on ultrasound of the right eye. He was given Intravenous Ganciclovir for 3 weeks and Intravenous Acyclovir for 2 weeks. He was sent home with oral Valganciclovir to be taken until CD4 counts >100 cells for at least 3 months. Antiretrovirals were also started. The pathogenic mechanisms of VZV reactivation in the CNS include neuronal and glial direct infection and immune-mediated lesions including vasculitis and demyelinization5 while CMV infection of vascular smooth muscle cells induces production of powerful pro-inflammatory cytokines which accelerate atherosclerosis development6. Conclusion: Opportunistic infections are an emerging cause of stroke in patients in HIV. This might be the first reported case of co-infection of the three most documented viruses that causes stroke: Cytomegalovirus, Varicella Zoster Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC),Nebraska.
Dr. Santhi Gorantla is an Associate Professor at University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) in Omaha. Her research career in HIV started with her first postdoctoral fellowship on “Gene therapy strategies for HIV-1 in SCID-hu mouse model” in 1997. She developed a novel “Humanized mouse model for NeuroAIDS” with established human immune system, where chronic progressive HIV infection results in immune- and central nervous system pathologies. She recently procured a NIH R24 Resource-Related Grant to establish a Center for Humanized Mice and support researchers across US with their research using humanized mouse models. She has established several collaborative projects with investigators at UNMC and also from other institutes in US. Using humanized mouse model we are currently working on understanding CNS viral reservoirs and their behavior with drugs of abuse. We are also developing new therapeutic strategies for effective delivery of anti-retroviral drugs to target the viral reservoirs.
URMC-099, a MLK-3 inhibitor, induces autophagy in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), which in turn lead to sequestration of nanoformulated antiretroviral drugs from endosomes and multi-vesicular bodies into autophagosomes. This resulted in drug retention and enhanced antiretroviral efficacy. Mice when injected with nanoformulated modified dolutegravir (NMDTG) and URMC-099, showed increased drug in lymph nodes, spleen and liver compared to NMDTG treatment alone. Plasma drug concentrations were high (~450 ng/ml) up to day 42 after parenteral injection. Since autophagy is linked to exosome biogenesis and the exosomes have their natural ability to reach different lymphoid organs, we hypothesized that modulating cellular autophagy can lead to drug loaded exosomes. These can speed drug delivery to HIV lymphatic reseroivrs. To test this idea, we treated MDM with nanoformulated atazanavir (nanoATV) and showed significant drug loading into exosomes. MDMs produced drug loaded exosomes for 14 days with enhanced drug concentration following URMC-099 treatment. URMC-099 enabled the long term presence of nanoATV into autophagosomes where drug loading was facilitated in exosomes. We reasoned that 30-150 nm sized extracellular vesicles can readily enter the lymphatic system. As exosomes also transport microRNA, peptides and small molecules between cells, we posit that modulating autophagy can be exploited as novel controlled drug delivery system to target lymphoid organs as well as to cross blood brain barrier. Such a delivery system could be used to target these tissue compartments recognized as HIV reservoirs. We conclude that harnessing autophagy, a tightly regulated and evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation process that controls cellular homeostasis by recycling cytoplasmic protein aggregates, damaged organelles, lipid droplets and intracellular pathogens can facilitate antiretroviral drug delivery.
Arsi University Asella Health Science College,Ethiopia.
Abebe sorsa is a asistant professor of pediatrics and child health , arsi university asella health science college, asella ethiopia.
Background: Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has brought significant change in reducing morbidity and mortality among children living with HIV/AIDS. However, proper monitoring of HAART response is found to be among the challenges that commonly occurring in HIV care and treatment in resource-limited countries. The objective of this study was to assess patterns of weight gain as a predictor of CD4 recovery during the first six months of HAART in children with HIV infection.
Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted on patients taking HAART since 2005 to 2011. All HIV-infected children under the age of 15 years who took first-line HAART for at least six months at Black Lion Specialized Hospital Addis Ababa were included. Data were collected, entered and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.Linear regression was used to assess weight gain as a predictor of CD4 cell recovery
RESULTS: Data of 196 children were analyzed. Males constitute 51% and the minimum age at the start of ART was 4 months and the highest being 168 months (inter-quartile range 87-120 months). CD4 cell count at the start of HAART ranged from 3-2003 cell/ml with an interquartile range of 231-317 cell/ml. After 6 months of HAART, the CD4 count has ranged from 71-2300 c/ml with inter quartile range of 458-612 c/ml and mean CD4 count difference of 230, 95% CI (199.414-260.613); P<0.001. The mean weight gain at three month is 0.772kg, 95% CI (0.588- 0.957) and at six months is1.80 kg,95% CI (1.60- 2.00); P<0.01.Weight at three and six months of initiation of HAART found to be strong predictors of CD4 count recovery at six months (p 0.012 and 0.002respectively).
Conclusion: Although gain in CD4 count in the first six months of ART is the best predictor of subsequent HAART outcomes, we demonstrated that pattern of weight gain is useful tool for predicting early response to HAART particularly in resource-limited settings.
Dr. Prashant Mule has completed his MD in Microbiology from the department of Microbiology, Tata memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India in 2016. Presently he is working as a senior resident in the department of Microbiology. His areas of interests are Mycology, Virology and prevention of health care associated infections. He has worked on the evaluation of in house Real time PCR for the diagnosis and prognostication of invasive fungal infections in a tertiary care cancer institute in Mumbai.
Rationale: Dengue has reached epidemic proportion in Mumbai in the last few years. Significant deterioration in the environmental hygiene and other factors resulting in stagnant water bodies have resulted in increased multiplication of vector Aedes aegypti. Cancer patients seeking treatment at the Tata Memorial Hospital reside in various parts of the city and have become victims of dengue due to this epidemic situation.
Aims/Objectives: To study the prevalence of dengue infections in patients seeking treatment for various malignancies at a tertiary care cancer hospital.
Materials/Methods: From May 2014 to April 2017 serum samples from clinically suspected cases of dengue are sent to the department of Microbiology, for testing. Testing is performed for NS1, IgM and IgG antibodies by solid phase immunochromatogarphy.
Results: There were 11810 samples received for testing for dengue infection during study period. Of these 1136 samples (10.39%) tested positive for dengue infection.
Conclusion: Patients receiving aggressive chemotherapy for malignancies develop thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia. Symptoms of dengue mimic the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and other infections. Rapid diagnosis of dengue in the current epidemic situation has become an important tool to screen cancer patients with fever and thrombocytopenia. NS1 antigen is a more specific marker for detection of Dengue viral infection. It helps in early diagnosis and treatment prevents the development of severe complications of dengue.
Abrehet kalayou is a Professor and completed her BSc, MSc in Ethiopia.
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive status disclosure among HIV-infected clients, particularly to their sexual partners, was one of the key components of HIV/AIDS services. Despite the benefit of disclosure, it has been documented that rates of partner disclosure by those living with HIV, though vary widely from study to study, was generally low, particularly in developing countries. Thus, disclosure of HIV positive status was a thing that demands investigation.
Objective: To determine the magnitude and factors related with HIV positive status disclosure to sexual partner among women living with HIV/AIDS attending ART clinic at Mekelle Hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia, 2017 G.c.
Methods: A facility based cross sectional study was conducted and 315 study subjects with 10% of contingency was selected using systematic random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, binary and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical review board of Mekelle University.
Result: The response rate was 100%. Overall, 63.8% of the women had disclosed their HIV positive status to sexual partner. Main reasons of disclosure reported by non-disclosed subjects were fear of abandonment, Fear of stigma and discrimination and fear of physical abuse. Women who did know HIV status of their sexual partners were more likely to disclose their HIV positive status than those who did not knew their partner’s HIV sero status [
Conclusion: HIV positive status disclosure to sexual partner in this study was low. Effectively addressing issues of disclosure was recommended to encourage disclosure and cope with negative reactions after disclosure in PLWHA.
Amhara Regional State Health Buearu, Ethiopia
Wondifraw WA currently working at Debremarkos Referral Hospital, Amhara Regional State Health Buearu, Ethiopia.
Background and objectives: The different Aloaceae plant extracts have been tested and found to contain components with anti leishmanial activity. Our study was conducted to assure anti leishmanial activity of the methanol extract of Aloe otallensis on the promastigot stage of Leishmania aethiopica as compared to currently used drugs and also tried to screen its phytochemical constitutes.
Methods: Aloe otallensis leaf exudate was extracted by using methanol solvent and phytochemical screening was done using the method mentioned by Trease and Evans as well as the extract was evaluated for in vitro anti leishmanial activity against Leishmania aethiopica which was taken from the Black Lion Specialized Hospital parasitology unit. The result was compared with currently used drug like; Sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin.
Result: The extract has a good anti leishmanial activity with an IC50 of 0.041 μg/mL on L. aethiopica (LDC/134). The experimental result shows that the extract has better anti leishimanial activity on L. aethiopica than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses was done by pad graph prison version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of aloe otallensis exudate showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin.
Conclusion: Aloe otallensis exudate methanol extract was found to have a good anti leishmaniasis activity against L. Aethiopica and this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin present in the plant. Even though this is our conclusion it needs further investigations to confirm which constituent(s) is/are responsible for such effect and at how many concentrations.
Current Executive Director for Foundation for Equal Rights and Opportunities (FERO),Malawi
Walusungu Trevor Nyasulu is Human Rights Social Activit/Defender based in Northern Malawi.He is the Current Executive Director for Foundation for Equal Rights and Opportunities (FERO)He has previously worked as Team Leader and Prevention of Mother to Child tranmission(PMTCT) project with Medicines du monde( Canada)in Mzuzu Central Hospital (2003-2007)He has been been studying the role of herbalist in STD and HIV-AIDs management in rular areas.
Malawi is among the countries worst affected by the HIV epidemic. The number of People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV) is estimated at about 1,000,000 which includes 850,000 people aged 15 years and above and 170,000 children below 15 years of age. The most recent estimates on the epidemic are based on modeling using the UNAIDS SPECTRUM, which estimates the prevalence of HIV at 10.3% indicating a slight reduction in prevalence from 10.6% in 20101. It was estimated in 2013 that 34,000 new infections occurred in the year, including 7,400 new infections amongst children aged less than 15 years2. Annual AIDS deaths were estimated at 48,000, slightly less than half of what they were at the epidemic's peak in 2004, at 99,000.This early decline follows the natural course of the epidemic and was probably also driven by a reduction of risky sexual behavior as the population became increasingly aware of HIV as the cause for the massive death wave the country experienced. Between 2000-2004, evidence strongly suggests that behavior changes (e.g. increases in condom use, decreases in the proportion of men having sex with more than one woman) contributed significantly to decreases in HIV in Malawi’s epidemic.
Malawi health care services is majory hit by by in adequate health care workers has resulted in to a tremendous HIV/AIDS patients living in rural areas of Malawi who desperately seek access to health care. In contrast, the ratio of traditional healers is considerably higher, and represents a tremendous opportunity to leverage existing community support networks and resources for widening the current health care worker in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. In this paper, I propose using rapid assessment procedures (RAPs) to create a fast, effective, decentralized participatory model of engaging local traditional healers with state health care service providers to enhance access to ARVs for HIV/AIDS patients living in rural areas of Malawi.
The feasibility of integrating traditional healers in HIV/AIDS interventions in Malawi needs to be seriously investigated based on the results in our SubSarhara African countries. Traditional healers are a vast untapped source of human capacity. If trained and educated in a participatory collaborative manner with biomedical health practitioners, they could complement and strengthen the HIV/AIDS prevention, control and care services in Malawi. As shown, traditional healers are more than eager to improve their comprehension of HIV/AIDS treatment and are motivated to participate in rural areas where patients are most difficult to reach. Furthermore, traditional healers have proven themselves, in many studies throughout SubSaharan Africa, to be worthy allies and would greatly assist Malawi's strategies to curtail the spread of HIV/AIDS infection and provide much needed human resource support for ARV adherence and compliance. The success of integrating traditional healers into Malawi's HIV/AIDS National Action Framework, will require the support and acceptance of policymakers, public health officials and international donors. Active participation of community innovations, cultural leaders, the formal and informal segments of the private sector, Community Based Organizations, PLHIV and community groups is needed to complement the efforts of the public sector in finding the cure for HIV.
Community Health Worker,Kenya.
Mr. Charles salil is a community health worker in the Department of Social work at the information center for HIV prevention. He has a master degree in in HIV prevention and treatment. He is a board member of constituency aids controll council -Eldoret East Constituency and also a member of International society for sexual medicine (ISSM) and IUSTI.He has attended several conferences such as HIV Glasgow 2016,20th World Meeting on Sexual Medicine, which took place in Beijing, China, on September 22-25, 2016,IUSTI 2016.
Background: Each country in the world has put in place strategies to prevent HIV/AIDS infections. In Kenya today, to control HIV/AIDS infection, there are various strategies that have been put in place for example: Voluntary counseling and Testing (VCT), Prevention of mother to Child transmission (PMTCT), Voluntary Medical male circumcision (VMMC) and Condom use among others. In that context however, research has shown that Truvada PrEP reduces the risk of HIV infection by more than 90% among gay and bisexual men when taken once-daily The objective of this study is to investigate the knowledge of Pre Exposure Prophylaxis (PreP) among Men who have Sex with Men.
Method: Ten community health workers were subjected to a three week intensive training programs to empower them with skills of carrying out interviews. Data was collected for a period of three months by use of Questionnaires and personal interviews. During the study, the enumerators used the following demographic data: Sex, Age, Education and how the partners perceive the use of Pre Exposure Prophylaxis
Results: 80 MSM were enrolled in this survey with their ages ranging from 18-35 years all being Males who are HIV + and with basic High Education. Of 40% of the respondents, they have preferred to use condoms as a protective device and other Gels other than Truvada PreP.50% of the respondents were in agreement to use PreP and they had some perceptions on the cost, availability, side effects in the event of stoppage while 10% of the respondents were not sure whether to use Truvada PreP or not since they needed more Education of Medical experts. However, the level of knowledge of Truvada PreP was proportional to their Education.
Conclusion: The survey showed that more information on Truvada PreP usage should be disseminated since its usage still remains a myth to most Kenyans (there is still a strong believe that AIDS as no cure).Therefore, for a successful Truvada usage depends on Opinion leaders, health Professionals and researchers to correct the current misconceptions existing about Truvada PreP in their communities
Walter Sisulu University,South Africa
Anozie L is a Proffessor at Walter Sisulu University, Nelson Mandela Drive, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa.
Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, more than 70 million people have been infected with the HIV virus and about 35 million people have died due to complications to HIV. Intestinal parasites are the most troublesome for AIDS patients, and are widespread in many regions of the world where HIV/AIDS is also prevalent. Sub-Saharan Africa is among the regions where intestinal parasitic infections are deep-rooted and the largest burden of AIDS cases exist. It is at the core of this research not only to address the social and behavioral aspect of the illness but the medical and other aspects of the disease as well. The aim is to address the issue of prevalence with the view that HIV and AIDS infection is not only a medical problem but a human problem which affects a person in all aspects of human existence. This is non-matched case-control study that comprise five hundred (500) participants: four hundred (400) HIV positive patients and one hundred (100) HIV negative patients as control group. The study participants are HIV positive patients attending HIV clinics at Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha as well as rural based participants, since we are also looking at environmental factors that influence the biologic effect on the HIV transmission. Intestinal parasites are believed to exert immunosuppression of the host by inducing permanent activation of the helper T-cells which may favor retroviral replications. This preliminary results point to the fact that, the existence of interaction between HIV and parasitic infections in co-infected individuals shows that parasitic infections, particularly helminths cause chronic immune activation, in addition to tilting the immune response toward T helper-2 immune responses. So much efforts have been made to control and eradicate the scourge of HIV/AIDS globally. Scientists suspect that the AIDS virus usually cannot cause the disease by itself, but other factors usually help it to infect. These “Cofactors” do not cause AIDS, but make it more likely that exposure to the virus will develop into the disease. In the face of these challenges, and even with the increased resources, global AIDS policy is failing to stem the epidemic. The failure to prevent HIV is probably because the program ignores the fundamental causes of the epidemic. The program attempts to intervene at the last minute with limitations to socio-psychological aspect such as behavioural change, ignoring the declining economies, educational quality, aggravated health crisis, and direct biologic effects of unsanitary conditions on the vulnerability of individuals and society to HIV. Therefore, there is need for holistic approach which includes but not limited to fundamental causes of the epidemic
Raj Kamal Tripathi has completed his PhD at the age of 27 years from Kanpur University and postdoctoral studies from Centre d' Immunologie (CIML), Marseille, France and Dept. of Immunology, Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, USA. He is a Principal Scientist in CSIR-CDRI, Lucknow, India, a premier drug development Institute. He has received national and International awards during his research career. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has one US patent.
HIV-1 is a retrovirus which when integrates with the human genome, establishes functional disease. The viral replication in the host T cell destroys the immune system, creating a pathological condition and rendering the host vulnerable to secondary infection, thus leading to mortality. The present anti-HIV-1 therapy is largely based on the inhibitory functions of the viral proteins which are crucial for the viral life cycle. There are some accessory proteins too, which may not be as essential for the viral life cycle, but may be critical in the survival of the virus in the host. Deletion of Nef, an accessory protein which does not have any enzymatic activity, favours the hypothesis that Nef- host protein interaction leads to the progression of AIDS in human and monkey. The insertion of Nef gene in mice and trans-cellular introduction of Nef protein in C.elegans leads to the exhibition of AIDS like symptoms in them.
Our laboratory is interested in identifying novel host cellular proteins that interact with Nef and decipher the cellular pathways regulated by it. We observe these interactions as potential targets for antiretroviral therapy. We have identified two Nef inhibitors that impede Nef-ASK-1 and Nef-GCC185 interaction regulating apoptosis and immune evasion respectively in the Nef infected cells. Based on our results, we propose the idea that these inhibitors may clear the viral infected cells from the host.
Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
A.F. Nazarova currently working in the Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
The calculation of genetic distances of 55 human populations belonging to four great human races considering loci of proteins, enzymes and blood groups, and construction the dendrogram of this populations distinguished some relationship of German, Slavic and Finnish-Ugric populations. So, Russians are in one subcluster with Poles, Iranians, Komi, Chuvashes, Udmurtians, Nentses and Ossetians. Germans are in one subcluster with Serbs, Moldavians, Hungarians, Croatians and Czechs. Greecs are in closeness with Slavic populations on this dendrogram, too.The calculation of genetic distances of 35 Slavic, Finnish and Germanic populations, and constructing the dendrogram confirmed this results. There were common migrations of this populations from places of first differentiation in Asia. In Europe German populations were migrated by another way than ancestors of Russians, which were migrated in Europe across North of Siberia. The ancestors of Germans probably migrated by the same way as Hunnu. Now are investigated settlements of ancient Caucasoids in Central Asia. The studing of mt DNA of rural Russian population in Yaroslavsky region discovered all haplogroups of Russians and even Caucasoids (H, W, I, U, X, T1). The last decoding of petrogliphs in Baical region discovered the presence of ancestors of Caucasoids in Siberia in paleolithic.