Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd International Conference on Retroviruses and Novel Drugs Vancouver, Canada.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Harold C. Smith

Founder and CEO
University of Rochester School of Medicine
USA

Keynote: Chemically Modified Camptothecin with Low Cytotoxicity is Broadly Neutralizing of HIV-1 as an Inhibitor of Vif-Dependent, APOBEC3G Degradation

Time : 10:00-10:40

Retroviruses 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Harold C. Smith photo
Biography:

Harold C. Smith is a tenured full professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry and Founder and CEO of OyaGen, Inc.  His expertise is as a cell and molecular biologist with a focus in his research on the structure, function and regulation of nucleic acid protein interactions.  He is an opinion leader on the viral restriction factors known as APOBEC.  OyaGen is a drug discovery and drug development company focused on eradication of HIV/AIDS and other viral diseases through the identification of novel drug targets and small molecules that interact with these targets.

Abstract:

Camptothecin (CPT) is a natural product discovered to be active against various cancers through its ability to inhibit Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1).  CPT analogs also have anti-HIV-1 (HIV) activity that has been previously shown not to depend on inhibition of TOP1.  We show that anti-cancer inactive CPT analogs inhibit HIV infection by disrupting homo-oligomerization of an HIV auxiliary protein known as viral infectivity factor (Vif). Antiviral activity depended on the expression of the cellular viral restriction factor known as APOBEC3G (A3G) that, in the absence of functional Vif, has the ability to hypermutate HIV proviral DNA during reverse transcription. Our studies demonstrate that a non-toxic CPT analog (i) prevented Vif multimerization and Vif-dependent A3G degradation, (ii) increased A3G in pseudotyped HIV viral particles along with A3G signature hypermutations in viral genomes, and (iii) possessed an A3G-dependent and broadly neutralizing antiviral activity against seventeen HIV clinical isolates from Groups M (subtypes A-G), N, and O as well as seven single and multi-drug resistant strains of HIV. Medicinal chemistry and structure activity relationship (SAR) efforts further identified a more potent analog that reached a therapeutic index of greater than 1,000 against live HIV subtype A following a single dose in 7-day spreading infections.  We propose that CPT analogs not active against TOP1 have an antiviral mechanism through Vif antagonism that enables A3G-dependent hypermutation of HIV.

Keynote Forum

Edgar M. Carvalho

Professor of Medicine
Senior Investigator of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
Brazil

Keynote: Reappraisal of Morbidity Related to HTLV-1

Time : 10:40 - 11:20

Retroviruses 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Edgar M. Carvalho photo
Biography:

Edgar M. Carvalho is Professor of Medicine of the Federal University of Bahia Medical School and Senior Investigator of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. He is a clinic immunologist with expertise in the pathogenesis, Immunology and therapy of tropical diseases. Regarding HTLV-1 he follows in the HTLV-1 out clinic of the Federal University of Bahia Hospital a cohort of 495 infected subjects. He has documented that more 51% of HTLV-1 infected subjects have clinical manifestations related to HTLV-1 such as overactive bladder, erectile dysfunction and others inflammatory diseases. He has also performed clinical trials in patients with different clinical manifestations related to HTLV-1.  

Abstract:

The HTLV-1 infection has been neglected mainly due to the misconception it is a low morbidity virus infection, as HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) and adult T cell leukemia, occurs in less than 5% of infected patients. In a cohort of 495 HTLV-1 infected individuals followed for up to 18 years we have determined the frequency and pathogenesis of diseases associated to HTLV-1. Patients were classified in 4 groups: 1) HTLV-1 carriers; 2) Neurogenic bladder and/or erectile dysfunction; 3) Definitive HAM/TSP; 4) Other inflammatory diseases. The diagnosis was performed by detection of anti HTLV-1 antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot. The pro-viral load was measured by RT-PCR and cytokine levels in supernatants of unstimulated lymphocyte cultures by ELISA. While there was an association between increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-viral load (PVL) with HAM, and at lesser extension with neurogenic bladder, these variables were not correlated with other inflammatory diseases related to the virus. The sicca syndrome was associated with high PVL in saliva and gland atrophy. The patients with chronic periodontitis had HTLV-1 in the periodont, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in this tissue and down modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. HTLV-1 associated arthropathy was characterized by pain in large joints, absence or little synovitis, entesitis detected by X-ray and no association with PVL or pro-inflammatory cytokines levels.

More than 95% of these patients who present neurogenic bladder or erectile dysfunction did not progress to HAM/TSP. Morbidly related to HTLV-1 is observed in more than 50% of infected subjects and is related to virus migration to specific tissues associated with a systemic or local exaggerated inflammatory response.

  • Track 1:Retrovirus diseases
    Track 2:Retroviral treatment
    Track 3:Recent advances in retroviral therapy
    Track 4:Retroviral delivery system
    Track 5:Retroviral syndrome
    Track 6:Human Endogenous and Exogenous Retroviruses
Location: Vancouver, Canada
Speaker
Biography:

LIB Kanzaki has been working with retroviruses, mainly in the field of HTLV-1/2 epidemiology and recently initiated a research work on endogenous retroviruses, searching for retroviral sequences in neoplastic tissues of patients with different histological types of cancer. Presently he is a professor of Immunology and retrovirology at the University of Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Abstract:

Actively replicative Endogenous Retrovirus (HERVs) are anciently integrated in the human genome and became stable in inherited material across generations, accounting for 8% of the human genome. Among HERVs group there are the HERV-K and HERV-W. HERV-K virions were seen budding from tumour cells, and viral RNA could be found at higher titers in the plasma of lymphoma and breast cancer patients. Reverse transcriptase and retroviral RNA were detected in plasma samples that simultaneously had HERV-K gag and env proteins, in both mature and pseudo particles. In light of these findings, we propose to initiate a study to evaluate the role of HERV-K among cancer patients in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. After the study approval (number 59/13) by the Commmittee of Ethics, under patients consent, blood samples and neoplastic tissue fragments were collected, in the surgery unit of the “Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal”. All patients had cancer in the neck or had. Thirty-five extracted DNA samples from different histopathological types were amplified with primers to the HERV-K gag region, and 31 samples yield an amplicon band size of 250 bp, as expected to the gag sequence. There are substantial reports in the literature of HERV-K proviral sequences detection among head and neck cancer and also in healthy tissues. Of 35 analysed samples, 10 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were previously negative for the presence of Human Papillomavirus gene sequences, but had HERV-K sequences detected. Further analysis will investigate the presence of other HERV-K sequences as env, pol and ltr, in order to better understand the role of these entitites in oncogenesis. Also the obtained amplicons will be sequenced and compared to published and deposited sequences. 

Segundo Mesa Castillo

Institute of Neurology of Havana, Cuba.

Title: About the etiology of schizophrenia
Speaker
Biography:

Segundo Mesa Castillo. As Specialist in Neurology, he worked for 10 years in the Institute of Neurology of Havana, Cuba.  He has worked in Electron Microscopic Studies on Schizophrenia for 32 years. He was awarded with the International Price of the Stanley Foundation Award Program and for the Professional Committee to work as a fellowship position in the Laboratory of the Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke under Dr. Joseph Gibbs for a period of 6 months, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, Washington D.C. USA, June 5, 1990.

                                                                                                  

Abstract:

In the origin of schizophrenia the evidences point to intra-uterine environmental factors that act specifically during the second pregnancy trimester producing a direct damage of the brain of the fetus. The current available technology doesn't allow observing what is happening at cellular level since the human brain is not exposed  to a direct analysis in that stage of the life. Methods. In 1977 we began a direct electron microscopic research of the brain of fetuses at high risk from schizophrenic mothers in order to finding differences at cellular level in relation to controls. Results. In these studies we have observed within the nuclei of neurons the presence of complete and incomplete viral particles that reacted in positive form with antibodies to herpes simplex hominis type I [HSV1] virus, and mitochondria alterations. Conclusion. The importance of these findings can have practical applications in the prevention of the illness keeping in mind its direct relation to the aetiology and physiopathology of schizophrenia. A study of amniotic fluid cells in women at risk of having a schizophrenic offspring is considered. Of being observed the same alterations that those observed previously in the cells of the brain of the studied foetuses, it would intend to these women in risk of having a schizophrenia descendant, previous information of the results, the voluntary medical interruption of the pregnancy or an early anti HSV1 viral treatment as

preventive measure of the later development of the illness.

Speaker
Biography:

Fregenet graduated as a medical doctor from Jimma University school of Medicine at the age of 24 in July 2013. After her graduation she started working at Wachemo University as a lecturer and general practitioner. She worked as a research and community service coordinator and dean of college of medicine and health sciences of Wachemo University. Currently, she is preparing to start specialty study at St.Paul Millennium Medical College in the department of radiology.

Abstract:

Every day, more than 1,800 babies worldwide contract HIV from their mothers. Many of these cases occur in Africa including Ethiopia. The transmission of HIV from infected mothers to babies could occur during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. For women to take advantage of measures to reduce transmission, they need to know about Mother To Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV and their HIV status. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge on MTCT and utilization of services designed for Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/AIDS among pregnant women. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted at Hossana town from March 3-28/ 2014 using pre-tested questionnaire and structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.

Out of the 417 pregnant women interviewed, 370 (88.7%) responded that they know MTCT of HIV, 377(90.4%) mothers tested for HIV during current pregnancy and 354(93.9%) shared test result to their husband. Knowledge of Mother to child transmission was the independent predictor of utilization of the services rendered for PMTCT of HIV/AIDS.

More than three-fourth of pregnant women knew about MTCT of HIV. Nine women in every ten tested for HIV during current pregnancy and shared test result to their husband. Knowledge of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS was the independent predictor of utilization of PMTCT services. Thus, improving awareness of pregnant women about MTCT of HIV/AIDS and its prevention strategies by means of health care providers in maternal and child health service units should be strengthened.

Speaker
Biography:

Minet Tesfai Hadish is a master’s of Nursing Science student from School of Nursing, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. I have graduated my Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) from School of Nursing, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, Eritrea in 2010 and won Gold Medal. I have  worked in the same college for six years as an assistant lecturer; nurse practitioner, class room instructor, clinical teacher and course coordinator,  as well as member of the executive committee for research coordination of the school of nursing and the college and in close association with BDHO; the Eritrean National HIV/AIDS Association as Trainer and Consultant.

 

 

Abstract:

Background: HIV testing plays a vital role in the prevention and reduction of the HIV epidemic and is a critical measure for HIV prevention programs and services. However, reports from Cameroon and Gabon indicated low HIV testing and lack of information about the predicting factors of HIV testing. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the HIV testing experiences and to explore its predicting factors among 15-24 aged Cameroonian and Gabonese youth.

Methodology: This study used nationally representative datasets from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Cameroon (2011) and Gabon (2012). A total of 14,880 youth of which 9511(63.91%) from Cameroon and 5369(36.08%) from Gabon were taken. Binary multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the associates of HIV testing using SPSS version 22.

Results: Above 14% of Cameroonian and 19% of Gabonese youth did not know where to get HIV test. In Cameroon 23.1% and in Gabon 41.6% of youth where tested for HIV in their life time. Only 11.7% of Cameroonian and 25.9% of Gabonese youth were tested for HIV in the last 12 months. Most of the youth tested for HIV in the last 12 months were received results of their HIV test. Even though such data was not available in the DHS data of Gabon, the main reasons for HIV test among Cameroonian youth were asked for the test, offered and accepted, and required. Variables that showed statistically significant association with HIV test and receiving HIV test results  were; age, type of residence, educational level, religion, marital status, wealth index, occupation, comprehensive knowledge, and acceptance attitude. Cameroonian and Gabonese male youth were less likely to know place to get HIV test, to be tested for HIV, tested and received HIV test results than their female counterparts.

Conclusion: Life time and in the last 12 months HIV test experiences among Cameroonian and Gabonese youth are very low and even significant proportion of the youth do not know where to get HIV test. Hence, both countries need to implement strategies targeting those younger, male, unmarried, not educated, and economically disadvantaged youth to increase their motivation and awareness towards HIV testing.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr Okeke Chukwubike Udoka is a lecturer in Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria. He has MSc and PhD in Chemical Pathology (Clinical Chemistry). He has Fellows of Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences in Haematology/Blood Group Serology (FIMLS). He is a member of African Society of Laboratory Medicine. He has participated in many researches, some of which have been published in reputable journals. He has presented papers in many local and international scientific conferences. He has research interest in Endocrinology, Metabolic Disease and Molecular Medicine.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women is on the increase in sub-sahara Africa. The use of antiretroviral drugs has ameliorated the adverse effect of HIV on pregnancy. The study was to investigate the effect of the antiretroviral drugs on estradiol and progesterone among HIV-infected pregnant women.

MATERIALS/ METHODS: 120 pregnant women participated in this study which comprised of 60 HIV seropositive at 2nd trimester, and 60 HIV seronegative throughout the gestation period. The HIV-infected group commenced antiretroviral treatment (Nevirapine, Zidovudine, and Lamivudine) at 2nd trimester through full term. The serum estradiol/ progesterone levels were estimated at 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy of these subjects by ELISA method.

RESULT: It was observed that there was progressive increase in progesterone and estradiol levels in 2nd through 3rd trimester in both groups of women, irrespective of their HIV status. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in progesterone levels between HIV-infected and non-infected groups at 2nd trimester (210.94 ± 7.04 ng/ml and 222.27± 6.81 ng/ml respecively). There was also no significant difference (p > 0.05) in progesterone level in 3rd trimester between the two groups (HIV –infected group 253.05 ± 6.81 ng/ml, and non-infected group 241.09 ± 5.72 ng/ml). It was observed that the estradiol levels in non-infected group (8,812.85 ± 415. 93pg/ml) was significantly higher (p <0.05) than HIV –infected group (5,359.82 ± 260.79 pg/ml) at 2nd trimester. This significant difference in estradiol levels was also observed in 3rd trimester between the two groups (non-infected 10.212.50 ± 566.76 pg/ml and HIV –infected 7,664.23 ± 268.72 pg/ml).

CONCLUSION: The significant decline in estradiol level among HIV-infected pregnant women at 2nd trimester shows that HIV infection significantly reduces the secretion of estradiol. It does not have significant effect on progesterone secretion among these women in second trimester. This indicates that untreated HIV infection can affect development and maintenance of pregnancy in women. The progressive increase in estradiol from 2nd trimester through 3rd trimester showed that antiretroviral drugs significantly ameliorate the possible effects of HIV on estradiol, thereby prevent some adverse HIV effects on the pregnancy outcome.

Speaker
Biography:

Akbar Esmaeili is a Professor in  Department of Chemical Engineering, North Tehran Branch,from the Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract:

In recent years, the unparalleled and functional properties of essential oils have been extensively reported, but the sensitivity of essential oils to environmental factors and their poor aqueous solubility have limited their applications in industries. Hence, we encapsulated CEO in chitosan nanoparticles by an emulsion-ionic gelation with pantasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and sodium hexametaphosphte (HMP), separately, as crosslinkers. The nanoparticles were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultravioletvisible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS). The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of CEO in chitosan nanoparticles increased with the increase of initial CEO amount. The nanoparticles displayed an average size of 30-80 nm with a spherical shape and regular distribution. In vitro release profiles exhibited an initial burst release and followed by a sustained CEO release at different pH conditions. The amount of CEO release from chitosan nanoparticles was higher in acidic pH to basic or neutral pH, respectively. The biological properties of CEO, before and after the encapsulation process were evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and agar disc diffusion method, respectively. The results indicated the encapsulation of CEO in chitosan nanoparticles could be protected the quality.

Speaker
Biography:

Maduike , C.  O. Ezeibe (Ph.D)   is a  graduate of University of  Nigeria, Nsukka . He is also a fellow of  College of Veterinary Surgeons, Nigeria (FCVSN) and  Professor of Veterinary Medicine, at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike-Nigeria.

Abstract:

Small size  of viruses  allows them access to organs that are in-access-able to medicines (big molecules).  When patients  are  treated, immunity clears such infections but for infections that cause immune-deficiency, there would be nothing  to clear them. Affected organs become their “sanctuary” . Aluminum silicate and Magnesium silicate were reacted {Al4(SiO4)3 + 3Mg2SiO4→2Al2Mg3(SiO4)3} for the medicinal synthetic Aluminum-magnesium silicate (MSAMS, Antivirt®).  Molecules  of  MSAMS  are made of Nanoparticles  with positive and  negative electrically charged ends.  Ultra small size of MSAMS-Nanoparticles allows them access to all organs. They bond their  ends to opposite  charges, on viruses and  on infected  cells.  MSAMS  also provokes  lymphocytosis. Synergy between its antiviral  effects  and  the lymphocytosis terminates viral infections. HIV-infected persons were classified as: (i) HIV-positive patients (CD4 ≥500) and (ii) HIV/AIDS patients (CD4 <500). Each patient was treated, daily, with Antivirt® (50mg/kg) and  immunace extra-protection® (1 tablet). They were tested before the treatment and every month, for viral loads and CD4 counts. Mean CD4 counts  of the HIV-positive patients (663.60±45.43) was more (P=0.00) than that of the HIV/AIDS patients (330.00±32.01) but means of  their monthly  CD4 before they recovered (1461.78±339.84 and 1400.00±301.30) became approximately same (P=0.89). HIV antigens and antibodies regressed, completely, in HIV-positive patients  after  8.40±0.24 months while it took 10.00 ±0.00  months  before HIV/AIDS patients recovered (P=0.00 ). Symptoms were observed in HIV/AIDS patients but the HIV-positives remained apparently healthy. Conclusion is that  patients at both HIV-positive stage  and  HIV/AIDS stage can recover, if treated with  the Antivirt®-immune stimulants regimen.

Speaker
Biography:

Mebratu Mitiku (MSc in CTID M) Coordinator of MSC program in Clinical Tropical Infectious disease Medicine (CTID Med) at University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences Department of Internal Medicine.

Abstract:

Background: Utilization of dual contraceptive methods can reduce the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) between partners. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of dual contraceptive use among HIV positive women attending care at University of Gondar Hospital, North west Ethiopia.

Methods: An Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending at the University of Gondar Hospital Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Clinic. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to recruit 619 participants from July to August, 2013. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire supplemented with chart review was used to collect data. Data were entered in EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics was employed to describe the characteristics of the study subjects. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed to identify associated factors.

Results: Dual contraceptive use among HIV positive women was found to be 13.2%. Age of the respondents above 25 years old (AOR=0.20; 95% CI=0.06-0.65), absence of counseling from health care providers (AOR=0.26; 95% CI=0.12-0.58) and spousal discussion about dual contraceptive (AOR=19; 95% CI=8.32-43.36) were associated with dual contraceptive use.

Conclusion: In this hospital dual contraceptive use was low. Strengthening family planning counseling and spousal discussion needs to be emphasized.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr Edet is a medical doctor with a Masters’ in Public Health (in view) from the University of Venda in Limpopo Province of South Africa.

Abstract:

Problem statement: South Africa presently has the highest HIV burden globally. The UNAIDS developed the “90-90-90 targets” to curb the global HIV burden. This target, which the South African government has adopted, aims at sustained viral suppression in 90% of all people on antiretroviral therapy. This is supported by several studies. Studies to observe if patients are achieving and sustaining viral suppression in Limpopo, South Africa are few. This study aims to investigate the viral and immunologic responses of patients in Vhembe District to highly active antiretroviral therapy from the time therapy is initiated to their latest laboratory results.

Methodology: This will be a retrospective medical record review. The study will be conducted in one health facility in Vhembe District in rural Limpopo. It will include about 1600 patient records. Data will be retrieved from electronic and paper-based medical records include viral load, CD4 count, age, gender, year of initiation, previous ART exposure, baseline haemoglobin, creatinine and BMI. Analysis of the data will be done using SPSS 24.0 programme to determine the proportion of patients that have adequate CD4 count increase, viral suppression and the prevalence of immuno-virologic discordance. Continuous data and proportions will be compared using student’s t-test and chi-square test respectively. Multivariate logistic regression will be used to determine the factors associated with viral suppression and adequate immunologic response. Estimates used will be odds ratios at 95% confidence interval and a p-value of 0.05.

Findings of this study include the viral and immunologic outcome of patients on HAART in Vhembe District. Data for this study has been collected and is being analysed.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Francis Oronsaye is presently working as an associate professor at University of Benin, Nigeria from where he pursued PhD in Medical Microbiology. After attaining doctorate, he served in various positions including lecturer, senior lecturer and pricipal investigator for various projects involved in the same university. He has attended more than 20 international conferences and delivered talks in his field of expertise. He is a member of International Research and Development Institute and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. He has published more than 50 research articles in peer-reviewed journals. He was also successful in designing a lotion for treating all kinds of superficial infections of bacterial and fungal origin. It is currently undergoing toxicology testing and is also awaiting NAFDAC registration.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of immunodeficiency virus antibodies among donors visiting University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Five thousand seven hundred (5700) blood samples collected from prospective blood donors in University of Benin Teaching Hospital from 2005-2015 were screened for HIV antibodies. The donors’ consent was obtained and was assured of strict confidentiality before the study commenced. Three hundred and thirty three (333) donors were found positive for HIV antibodies and were. Such blood collected from the donors were used for transfusion but were discarded without the notice of the donors. Screening of blood to be used for transfusion must be done for HIV antibodies and other underlying viral diseases before they are considered suitable for transfusion. Since blood transfusion is one of the major routes of transmission of infectious diseases, especially immunological diseases, screening of blood meant for transfusion should be made compulsory in all hospitals whether public or private.